Publications

Towards a Cross-border Open Data Agenda – A Case for a macro-regional agenda on open government data in the Baltic Sea Region

2016, Thematic Reports

Discussion Paper on the potential for open government data across borders in the Baltic Sea Region. It puts forward proposals for transnational initiatives to build awareness, enhance coordination and collaboration, exchange best practices, and take steps towards harmonisation of data and cross-border data flows.

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2016 State of the Digital Region: Cities Connecting the Digital Economy in the Baltic Sea Region

2016, Thematic Reports

This publication presents an overview of how Baltic and Nordic countries have been performing within the digital economy. The paper also looks closely at the role of cities and city networks fostering digital growth, since increased urbanization and digitization are increasingly intertwined.

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2016 Political State of Region Report: Facing a New Reality in the Baltic Sea Region

2016, Political State of the Region Reports

The report is describing the critical development in the general political climate and the possibilities of keeping channels open and soft cooperation going on. As an example the four authors are looking into energy-security and comparing cooperation in the Arctic and Baltic Regions.

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2016 State of the Region Report – Doing Well Today, Feeling Worried About Tomorrow

2016, State of the Region Reports

The report confirms that the region is doing well in many regards with positive growth and strong levels of consumption. However, this year’s report also shows a more negative side to the reality across the Baltic Sea Region. It raises questions about the sustainability of current levels of prosperity and concerns about asset bubbles that might emerge.

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Policy Area Innovation Strategy Guide 2016-2020

2016, Thematic Reports

This guide provides policymakers and innovation actors with guidance and inspiration for how best to utilise the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region so as to effectively achieve EU and joint national goals. Developed within PA Innovation of the EUSBSR.

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National Profiles on Digital Policy for the PA Inno Strategy Guide

2016, Thematic Reports

Digital policy profiles for all countries in the Baltic Sea Region, based on desk research as well as interviews with key policy makers and stakeholders. Developed as a complement to the PA Inno Strategy Guide 2016-2020.

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Transnational Digital Collaboration in the Baltic Sea Region: Working Paper for the PA Inno Strategy Guide

2016, Thematic Reports

Outlining the main digital challenges and policy priorities for countries in the Baltic Sea Region with regard to transnational collaboration. The paper was developed as a complement to the PA Inno Strategy Guide 2016-2020 and is based on a survey and interviews carried out November 2015 – January 2016.

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The Baltic Sea Region: Challenges and Game Changers

2015, Articles and papers

The paper suggests a step-by-step approach as a possible way forward for Baltic Sea Region cooperation that involves Russia. This approach would entail stabilizing the existing functional cooperation using existing regional bodies to create stronger coherence and synergies.

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State of the Region Report 2015: The Top of Europe – Striving for Direction in a Complex Environment

2015, State of the Region Reports

The report documents solid macro-economic performance in the Baltic Sea Region but emphasizes the need for more sound investments in cross-border innovation policies, strengthened regional cooperation, and improved integration.

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State of the Region Report 2014: Top of Europe – Emerging from the Crisis, Adapting to a New Normal

2014, State of the Region Reports

The report sketches the economic implications of the political situation in the light of downscaled dialogue with Russia. It also assesses the region’s performance on trade, investment and innovation.

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State of the Region Report 2010: The Top of Europe Recovering: Regional Lessons from a Global Crisis

2010, State of the Region Reports

The report evaluates the performance of the region with reference to the global economic crisis in 2008. The recovery will require sound policies and improvements in labour productivity. The EUSBSR is an important framework for regional cooperation, though political will and governance structures should be further strengthened.

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State of the Region Report 2013: The Top of Europe – Plowing Ahead in the Shadows of a Fractured Global Economy

2013, State of the Region Reports

The report provides an economic outlook for the region that is still in recovery after financial crisis. The region, even though performing better relative to its peers in Europe, has to back up the rest of Europe in finding a sustainable development path. Various scenarios of recovery are debated.

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State of the Region Report 2012: The Top of Europe Bracing Itself for Difficult Times: Baltic Sea Region Collaboration to Sustain Growth

2012, State of the Region Reports

The region performs relatively well in economic terms. The report underlines remarkable country specific differences, however there is a tendency pointing towards a changing regional economic landscape. Special attention is paid to investments in green growth and transportation.

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State of the Region Report 2011: The Top of Europe’s Quest for Resilience: A Competitive Region Facing a Fragile Global Economy

2011, State of the Region Reports

The publication highlights further competitiveness upscaling and sound policies as a requirement for the region to stay on the top in terms of economic performance. Significantly improved coordination across organisations and networks has strengthened regional cooperation.

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State of the Region Report 2009: Boosting the Top of Europe

2009, State of the Region Reports

The report provides a review of the current situation in the Baltic Sea Region, where the countries are recovering from the financial crisis at an uneven pace. Regional competitiveness is still strong, but should not be taken for granted. The EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region is introduced.

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State of the Region Report 2008: Sustaining Growth at the Top of Europe

2008, State of the Region Reports

The report states that the 2nd half of 2008 has been ear-marked by the financial crisis that overshadows all national economies. The Baltic Sea Region is performing relatively well, by revealing the potential to become a role model for integration approaches in Europe.

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State of the Region Report 2007: The Baltic Sea Region as a Place to Do Business

2007, State of the Region Reports

The report assesses three dimensions that the Baltic Sea Region should develop further to secure its solid competitiveness and high economic performance. More investments are needed to sustain the capacity to innovate, create better incentives for business, and strengthen regional integration.

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State of the Region Report 2006: The Baltic Sea Region – Top of Europe in Global Competition

2006, State of the Region Reports

The report documents the prosperity of the Baltic Sea Region, but suggests further measures in order to sustain growth and stay on top. Due to sound business environment and healthy macro-economic policies, the region is often referred to as a good example among its peers globally.

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State of the Region Report 2005: Competitiveness and Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region

2005, State of the Region Reports

The report shows high economic performance, sustained growth, strong labour productivity and growth. However, FDIs and export market shares in goods are declining. Cooperation with Russia is viewed as a promising economic opportunity, but is also challenging to realize.

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State of the Region Report 2004 part II: Innovation in the Baltic Sea Region – a Case for Regional Collaboration

2004, State of the Region Reports

The report provides an overview of national approaches to innovation, and provides recommendations for further strengthening innovation on a regional level. It concludes that such initiatives should be anchored with decision-making and linked to policy processes.

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State of the Region Report 2004: An Assessment of Competitiveness in the Baltic Sea Region

2004, State of the Region Reports

The report documents relatively high economic performance, labour productivity growth and scientific innovations. The Region can do even better, if it is better integrated with positive spill-overs across national borders.

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Political State of the Region Report 2014: Baltic Sea Neighbourhoods – A Mega-Region in Progress?

2014, Political State of the Region Reports

The report sheds light on the region and its neighbours, in particular Russia. The authors outline the way ahead in the light of the current crisis in EU-Russia collaboration. Political dialogue should remain and be strengthened. The crisis might offer an opportunity for a renewal of regional cooperation.

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Political State of the Region Report 2013: Trends and Directions in the Baltic Sea Region

2013, Political State of the Region Reports

The report contains country specific chapters that provide analyses of what the Baltic Sea Region countries have done differently and better in comparison to countries in Southern Europe. One of the main assets of the Region is “soft power”, but the question remains how to use this asset more effectively.

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Political State of the Region Report 2012: Dilemmas and Coherence in the Baltic Sea Region

2012, Political State of the Region Reports

The report focuses on a number of the Baltic Sea Region countries, including Iceland, Norway and Russia. It also provides an assessment of the Danish EU Presidency, highlights increased interest in the regional affairs from the Polish side, and a changed focus by Germany in view of its CBSS Presidency.

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Political State of the Region Report 2011

2011, Political State of the Region Reports

This 1st edition provides an overview of political and economic developments in the Baltic Sea Region. The countries are still recovering after the financial crisis in 2008. On the political agenda, there are tendencies in right-wing populist, anti-migration and anti-European movements. The importance of the EUSBSR for regional cooperation is highlighted.

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State of the Digital Region 2015 – Leveraging a digital Baltic Sea Region

2015, Thematic Reports

The Baltic Sea Region is a digital forerunner in Europe. This report seeks to capture in a snapshot the digital state of the region in 2015. It is based on more than 1500 data indicators from national and international databases covering digitization and economic development.

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Coding the Future – The challenge of meeting future e-skill demands in the Nordic-Baltic ICT hub

2015, Thematic Reports

The report addresses the gap between demand and supply of ICT specialists and presents results from a survey among companies and universities in five Baltic Sea Region countries, providing an overview of the debate on e-skills and a snapshot of the situation in the Baltic Sea Region

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A Digital Single Market – Growing the Baltic Sea Region

2015, Thematic Reports

The report show that an integrated regional digital market could increase GDP in the Baltic Sea Region annually by EUR 29 billion, with an additional 4 billion in consumer surplus and 4 billion in e-procurement, as a result of an increased take-up rate in fixed broadband, improved e-skills and increased e-commerce.

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Searching for the Micro Multinationals

2014, Thematic Reports

A study on the state and ecosystem of ICT-related start-ups and SMEs, the so-called “Micro-multinationals” in the Baltic Sea Region, providing a first step towards a better understanding of the potential within the fast growing digital market.

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Business plan for Investment Promotion Agencies in the Baltic Sea Region

2014, Thematic Reports

The publication is issued as a part of the EU-project ONEBSR with focus on branding, promoting and marketing the Region. The Business Plan focuses on benefits and value added of cross-border cooperation between investment promotion agencies.

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Guide to Financing Energy Efficiency in Russia

2014, Thematic Reports

The Report forms part of the EU-funded project on energy efficiency RENSOL. The study maps the existing traditional financial instruments in Russia. Furthermore it documents other available financial schemes and energy saving practices in the Baltic Sea Region.

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Making Water Your Business

2014, Thematic Reports

This report introduces some of the tools and platforms available for corporate water sustainability. Seven big companies in the Baltic Sea Region share their experiences in implementing water management strategies and concepts.

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Facets of Identity

2013, Thematic Reports

The report sheds light on various facets of the concept of identity. Recent developments and establishments in the Region have fuelled an interest in discussing a regional community and identity. The publication aims at understanding of what happens when identity is constructed.

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The Outlook for the World Economy

2013, Conference Reports, Thematic Reports

The Report refers us back the economic downturns in 2012 and points to optimism regarding the outlook for the world economy. Some references are made to the countries with emerging economies, including Russia, that have succeeded in making progress in upscaling their competitiveness.

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Baltic Sea Region – Investor’s Guide 2012–2013

2012, Thematic Reports

The Investor’s guide presents business and investment opportunities in the countries and main cities of the Baltic Sea Region 2012-2013..

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Going for Green Growth in the Baltic Sea Region

2010, Thematic Reports

The report provides recommendations on how to revitalize the economy in the Baltic Sea Region. The paper has been prepared in close dialogue with regional confederations of industry in the Region. It provides a basis for a continued dialogue between policymakers and business.

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Place Branding and Place Promotion Efforts in The Baltic Sea Region – A Situation Analysis

2011, Thematic Reports

Mapping initiatives on place promotion and branding in the Baltic Sea Region. Published through the project BaltMet Promo.

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Priorities Towards a Digital Single Market in the Baltic Sea Region

2012, Thematic Reports

An overview of the barriers to a digital single market in the Baltic Sea region and priorities for action. Cross border barriers in the digital area cost at least 45 billion EUR in Region alone. The report estimates the potential to be released if barriers are overcome, and suggests a Digital Action Plan for the Region.

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On Identity – No Identity

2011, Thematic Reports

The essay forms part of the EU-funded project BaltMet Promo and should be seen as a complementary study to the previous branding publications. The report describes a common identity concept, by highlighting the complexity of identity construction.

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Promotion of Trade and Investments in the Baltic Sea Region

2011, Thematic Reports

The report provides an analysis on opportunities for strengthened cooperation between trade and investment promotion agencies. It points out that improved coordination will create critical mass and secure increased foreign direct investment in the Baltic Sea Region.

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National and Cross-national Policies on Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Baltic Sea Region

2011, Thematic Reports

The report serves as a guidebook for policymakers and provides recommendations on how the share of female entrepreneurs could be increased. The study explores the link between entrepreneurial activities and sustainable growth.

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Sustainable Energy Scenarios; Energy Perspectives for the Kaliningrad Region

2010, Thematic Reports

The report is a continuation of the BDF 2009 study on regional energy scenarios, with particular focus on Russia and Kaliningrad as an integrated part of the Baltic Sea Region. The study applies a technical rather than political approach. It charts various scenarios depending on how the regional energy dialogue will be developing.

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Place Branding and Place Promotion Efforts in the Baltic Sea Region

2010, Thematic Reports

The report forms part of the EU-financed project BaltMet Promo. It provides a basis for facilitating wider discussion on international marketing and the attractiveness of the Baltic Sea Region. It concludes that more needs to be done to secure a distinct and appealing image.

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Sustainable Energy Scenarios

2009, Thematic Reports

The report assesses what should done to secure an integrated energy system in the Baltic Sea Region and how to make most use of the diversified energy-mix. The study presents various energy scenarios and makes a reference to Kriegers Flak.

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Energy perspectives of the Baltic Sea Region

2008, Thematic Reports

The study provides an overview of the energy situation in the Baltic Sea Region and serves as a mid-term analysis in developing a final report to be issued in 2009. The authors describe two scenarios for the energy and transport sectors.

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Financial Integration of the Baltic Sea Region

2007, Thematic Reports

The report provides a basis for discussion on the creation of a single financial market in Northern Europe. It addresses the role and importance of the financial market and points out the key barriers to the creation of a single market in the Baltic Sea Region.

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Growth and Innovation beyond Metropolises

2006, Thematic Reports

The report discusses the challenges of including peripheral areas in the process of establishing a competitive Baltic Sea Region. The paper assesses the benefits of regional development, place marketing, economic cluster and attraction of foreign direct investments.

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Intelligent Transport and Infrastructure in the Baltic Sea Region

2005, Conference Reports, Thematic Reports

The report is a summary of the Baltic Development Forum Roundtable discussions on intelligent transport systems. The study provides recommendations on the development of multimodal transport systems and effective terminal structures with smart information and control systems.

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Competing in the Single Market

2004, Thematic Reports

The study presents a comparative analysis of the Baltic Sea Region countries, specifically the three Baltic states and Poland, by arguing the importance of SMEs and innovation capacity as drivers of economic growth and competitiveness.

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Tourism Development in the Baltic Sea Region

2004, Thematic Reports

The report provides an analysis of the tourism industry, by pointing out its significant economic and social potential. It suggests further investments in infrastructure development, vocational training, clustering and other areas in order to boost the tourism industry.

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Øresund – Creating a Baltic Sea Winner Region

2004, Thematic Reports

The report assesses the Øresund region in the global competitive environment. The analysis indicates that the potential and competitive strengths have not yet been fully exploited.

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Economic Performance and Competitiveness of the Kaliningrad Region

2004, Thematic Reports

The study indicates the specifics of the Kaliningrad region’s geopolitical and geo-economic position in the Baltic Sea Region. Economic growth remains fragile and is boosted mainly through the import substitution model. More sound policies and investments are needed to secure a sustainable development path.

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Challenges for the Baltic Sea Region’s Transport Infrastructure

2003, Conference Reports, Thematic Reports

The report presents a summary of the Baltic Development Forum Roundtable discussions by representatives from transport companies and industry. The summary includes a list of strategic issues to consider for the regional transport sector.

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Does One Shoe Fit Everyone?

2003, Thematic Reports

Based on in-depth case studies of three Swedish multinational corporations, this study compares the human resource management practices used by these firms’ Chinese, Russian and Finnish subsidiaries.

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Competing in the Single Market

2003, Thematic Reports

The report provides a basis for discussion on how to establish common initiatives and policies for strengthening national innovation systems, enterprise development, and competitiveness in the Baltic Sea Region.

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Mobile Readiness in the Baltic Sea Region

2003, Thematic Reports

The study presents the concept mWatch which is the result of earlier discussions initiated by Baltic Development Forum. It also assesses clustering concepts and cross-border cooperation between different ICT clusters in the Baltic Sea Region.

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The Baltic Sea Region as an Economic Entity?

2003, Thematic Reports

The report explores the perception and recognition of the Baltic Sea Region as an economic entity by media channels. It provides key findings on the regional publicity and annexes a list of national media channels.

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Transport Infrastructure in the Baltic Sea Region

2002, Thematic Reports

The discussion paper, prepared for the BDF Summit in 2002, provides an overview of transport corridors in the Baltic Sea Region and how they are used. It also indicates the trade flows between East and West and provides recommendations on how to sustain development of existing links.

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Is There a New Russia?

2001, Thematic Reports

The report assesses the extent to which Russia over the last decade has succeeded in establishing the foundations for sustainable growth and what remains to be done. Market-oriented reforms could be the right path for further development.

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Is There a Need for a Baltic Sea Investment Bank?

2000, Thematic Reports

The report analyses the links between the development paths of the Baltic Sea Region countries and access to financial instruments and lending via existing international financial institutions. It speculates about the need for establishing a Baltic Sea Investment Bank.

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Capital Markets and Stock Exchanges in the Baltic Sea Region

2000, Thematic Reports

The report serves as a background paper for the BDF Summit and summarises discussions at a round-table arranged by Baltic Development Forum. It discusses the key implications of the European capital markets developments and the impact for the Baltic Sea Region market.

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New Energy Dialogue – New Opportunities

2015, Articles and papers

Overview of current energy issues in the Baltic Sea Region. Article written to set the stage for the conference "New Energy Dialogue – New Opportunities", 6 May 2015.

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The EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region: High Expectations for a New European Model of Regional Co-operation

2011, Articles and papers

Article by BDF Chairman Uffe Ellemann-Jensen for the 6th Riga Conference.

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Position paper on the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region

2008, Articles and papers

Position paper drafted in collaboration with other regional organisations and provided as input to the development of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region.

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Branding the Baltic Sea Region: “Just do it”

2007, Articles and papers

Article about creating a regional brand for the Baltic Sea Region. By Uffe Ellemann-Jensen, published in Baltic Rim Economies, 30.4.200.

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National and Cross-national Policies on Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Baltic Sea Region – a Comparative Perspective

2011, Thematic Reports

Mapping and evaluating policy initiatives to stimulate entrepreneurship among women in the Baltic Sea Region counties.

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BDF Magazine Summer 2008

2008, Articles and papers

BDF Magazine Summer 2008: Regional Perspectives on Energy and Climate.

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Energy Dialogue in the Baltic Sea Region

2015, Conference Reports

Conclusions from the conference “Energy Dialogue in the Baltic Sea Region” on 6 May 2015, including recommendations for regional energy cooperation.

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Drivers for Blue Growth

2015, Conference Reports

Summary of discussions at the conference “Drivers for Blue Growth” organised 6 October 2015 by BDF, DG MARE, Maritime Development Center of Europe and the Danish Maritime Authority.

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Exploring the Potential of Testbeds

2014, Conference Reports

Key findings and recommendations from the seminar “Digital Growth in the Baltic Sea Region: Exploring the Potential of Testbeds for Digital Products and Services” held in Copenhagen 9 December 2014.

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Cool North – Cultural Diplomacy in the Nordics

2014, Conference Reports

Report from “Cool North – Cultural Diplomacy in the Nordics: Strategies for Regional Development, Cooperation, Good Neighborly Relations” held in Copenhagen 8-9 September 2014.

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Baltic Sea Conference 2013

2013, Conference Reports

Report from the “Baltic Sea Conference 2013 – Blue Growth, Sustainability and Water Industries”, held in Copenhagen on 3 October 2013

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Summit Report 2012

2012, Conference Reports

Report on the 14th BDF Summit: Connecting Europe – Smart and Green Partnerships in the Baltic Sea Region. Held in Copenhagen 2012.

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Summit Report 2011

2011, Conference Reports

Report on the 13th BDF Summit: New Ambitions for the Baltic Sea Region. Held in Gdansk 2011

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Growth and Competitiveness in the Baltic Sea Region – conference report

2011, Conference Reports

Minutes from a conference held in Stockholm 11 March 2011. Main topics: Internal market and business opportunitites, digital agenda, EU-Strategy for the region.

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Green Growth and EU Baltic Sea Strategy – conference report

2011, Conference Reports

Conference held in Riga, 5‐6 May 2011. Main topics: EU-strategy for the region, synergies between green growth and energy, urban living, transport and cluster formation.

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How to Promote Mobility for Students and Researchers in the Baltic Sea Region

2011, Conference Reports

Report summarizing the discussions that took place at the conference “How to promote mobility for students and researchers in the Baltic Sea Region – strategic and innovative mobility” held in Copenhagen 23 November 2010.

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Summit Report 2010

2010, Conference Reports

Conclusions from the 12th BDF Summit: European Challenges – Regional Solutions: An Agenda for Jobs, Investments and Sustainable Growth. Held in Vilnius 2010.

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Summit Report 2009

2009, Conference Reports

Conclusions from the 11th BDF Summit: Boosting Top of Europe. Held in Stockholm 2009.

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Summit Report 2008 / BDF Magazine Summer 2009

2009, Articles and papers, Conference Reports

"Boosting Top of Europe – Uniting Regional and European Integration". Articles on regional cooperation, business, Russia relations, and energy market. Reporting back from the 10th BDF Summit in Copenhagen 2008.

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Summit Report 2007 / BDF Magazine Spring 2008

2008, Articles and papers, Conference Reports

"Towards a European Baltic Sea Strategy – the Second Wave of Integration". Articles on EU-strategy, labour market, talent attraction and finance. Reporting back from the 9th BDF Summit in Tallinn 2007.

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The Baltic Sea Economic Congress 2008 – summary

2008, Conference Reports

Summary of discussions at the Baltic Sea Economic Congress held in Warsaw 23 September 2008 and co-organised by BDF. Main topic was the development of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region.

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Summit Report 2006 / BDF Magazine Spring 2007

2007, Articles and papers, Conference Reports

"An Exclusive Insight to the Top of Europe". Articles on regional cooperation, politics and finance. Reporting back from the 8th BDF Summit in Helsinki 2006.

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Seminar Report: From Best Practice to a Baltic Sea Brand

2007, Conference Reports

Summary of disussions at a seminar organised in Timmendorfer Strand 30-31 May 2007 which explored how to proceed with creating a Baltic Sea regional brand.

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Summit Report 2005

2005, Conference Reports

Report on the 7th BDF Summit: The Baltic Sea Region as a Role Model – Achieving Global Excellence in Competitiveness and Innovation by 2010. Held in Stockholm 2005.

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Summit Report 2004

2004, Conference Reports

Report on the 6th BDF Summit: The Baltic Sea Region at a Crossroads – New Business or Business as Usual? Held in Hamburg 2004.

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Summit Report 2003

2003, Conference Reports

Report on the 5th BDF Summit: New Europe Meets Old Europe – the Baltic Sea Region as Global Frontrunner. Held in Riga 2003.

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Creating a Single Market for Knowledge in the Baltic Sea Region

2009, Thematic Reports

Explores the potential for free movement of knowledge. Based on interviews with 20 business leaders in the Baltic Sea Region. Published as part of the series Baltic Sea Agenda.

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Baltic Sea Agenda vol 5

2003, Articles and papers

Volume 5 of the series Baltic Sea Agenda: ”New Europe Meets Old Europe – Which Way Ahead?” Regional perspectives on cooperation, politics, research and business.

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Baltic Sea Agenda vol 4

2003, Articles and papers

Volume 4 of the series Baltic Sea Agenda: “The Baltic Sea Region – A New World Leader in ICT?” Regional perspectives on cooperation, politics, research and business.

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Baltic Sea Agenda vol 3

2002, Articles and papers

Volume 3 of the series Baltic Sea Agenda. Regional perspectives on cooperation, politics, research and business.

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Baltic Sea Agenda vol 2

2002, Articles and papers

Volume 2 of the series Baltic Sea Agenda: “Kaliningrad – Growth Centre or Dead End”. Regional perspectives on cooperation, politics, research and business.

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Baltic Sea Agenda vol 1

2002, Articles and papers

Volume 1 of the series Baltic Sea Agenda. Regional perspectives on cooperation, politics, research and business.

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Summit Report 2002

2002, Conference Reports

Report on the 4th BDF Summit: New Bridges across the Baltic Sea Region – Visions and Strategies for the Future Growth Centre in Europe. Held in Copenhagen 2002.

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Summit Report 2001

2001, Conference Reports

Conclusions from the 3rd BDF Summit: Closing the Gap – Creating a Win-Win Situation in the Baltic Sea Region. Held in St. Petersburg 2001.

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Summit Report 2000

2000, Conference Reports

Report on the 2nd BDF Summit: Launching a Regional Strategy for Business Development. Held in Malmö 2000.

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Summit Report 1999

1999, Conference Reports

Report on the 1st Baltic Development Forum Summit: Promoting the spirit of co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region. Held in Stockholm 1999.

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